Meanwhile, large numbers of refugees continued to move south, causing the British and Australians further concern given the possibility that they might be used by the Chinese to cover the infiltration of their positions. Because of this move, the United Nations’ troops were able to successfully reinforce their positions by holding onto the Chongchon Line. The battle was fought between British and Australian forces from the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade with American armour and artillery in support, and the PVA 117th Division of the 39th Army, around the village of Pakchon on the Taeryong River. Undetected by US and South Korean intelligence, the PVA 13th Army Group crossed the border on 16 October and penetrated up to 100km (100miles) into North Korea, and were reinforced in early November by 12 divisions from the PVA 9th Army Group; in total 30 divisions composed of 380,000 men. The battalion's commanding officer, Lieutenant Colonel Floyd Walsh, was replaced by Lieutenant Colonel Charles Green. The offensive reversed the United Nations Command (UN) advance towards the Yalu River which had occurred after their intervention in the wake of the North Korean invasion of South Korea at the start of the war.  Meanwhile, B Company—under the command of Major Alastair Gordon-Ingram—attacked the second PVA roadblock, again supported by a number of American tanks.  At the same time, the PVA 9th Army Group ambushed US X Corps near the Chosin Reservoir as the freezing winter weather set in. The Battle of Pakchon (5 November 1950), also known as the Battle of Bochuan (Chinese: 博川战斗; pinyin: Bó Chuān Zhàn Dòu), took place ten days after the start of the Chinese First Phase Offensive, following the entry of the People's Volunteer Army into the Korean War. The brigade was ordered to seize Chongju. 978-1-74110-807-1. harv. Intending to defeat the North Koreans and bring the war to a close, the UN forces pushed towards the Yalu River, on the Chinese border. Book: Rodger, Alexander . The Battle of Pakchon was a battle in the Korean War between the United Nations 27th British Commonwealth Brigade and the Chinese 117th Division.The battle took place on 5 November 1950 around the small village of Pakchon and around the Taeryoung River,  ten days after the Chinese launched the Communist First Phase Campaign. 2003 . By early morning the Chinese attack had been checked and 3 RAR had redeployed to new positions in the paddy fields around the railway crossing north of Maenjung-dong. One of the section commanders, Corporal Jeff Jones, immediately took command of the 5 Platoon assault, moving from section to section across the steep slope to direct their fire, even while under heavy Chinese mortar and machine-gun fire. Book: Roe, Patrick C. . Under-strength, the two British battalions had each mustered just 600 men of all ranks, while the brigade was also short on transport and heavy equipment, and had no integral artillery support, for which it would rely entirely on the Americans until the 16th Field Regiment, Royal New Zealand Artillery arrived in January 1951. Reaching the top the Australians observed the Chinese withdrawing northwards up the valley. After a long approach across 500 metres (550 yd) of open paddy field, A Company relieved the beleaguered Argylls. , On 23 September 1950, 3 RAR embarked for Korea, concentrating at Pusan on 28 September.  From 11 November the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade advanced slowly north. The remainder of the battalion deployed on the right, while the Argylls occupied two hills further north. However, following heavy fighting the pressure on the Australians unexpectedly ceased after midnight, and parties of PVA were observed beginning to withdraw. Nonetheless, the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade succeeded in preventing a Chinese break-through at Pakchon, keeping open vital withdrawal routes across the river and securing the UN left flank. The Crowood Press. The Battle of Pakchon was an important piece of military infighting early in the Korean War. The Chinese force turned west to advance between the Taeryong and Chongchon rivers, threatening the rear of the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade by cutting the Pakchon–Sinanju road. Only D Company on the southern right flank—which had been left unmolested—was able to regain its previous position on Hill 63.  The same day Coad visited 3 RAR; dissatisfied with the battalion's dispositions and having now lost confidence in its commander, he relieved Walsh of his position, appointing the second-in-command, Major Bruce Ferguson, in his place. The following day they attacked an American artillery battery which was guarding a vital concrete bridge near Kujin. Morris. 0-7022-3106-1. harv. On the Chinese side, it is estimated that well over 200 were killed and almost as many more others suffered injuries directly resultant from the battle. 298945765. harv. On 25 October 3 RAR crossed the Taeryong River. Volume II. Many of those killed were also found to have been carrying demolition charges. The Battle of Pakchon (5 November 1950) was a battle of the Korean War that was fought between the British-Australian British 27th Infantry Brigade (with American armor and artillery in support) and the Chinese 117th Division. The British and Australians then successfully counter-attacked the PVA forces occupying a number of nearby ridgelines during the day but were in turn counter-attacked before being pushed off the high ground during the night. The battle itself was fought between “the Allies” (British and Australian forces from the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade with significant American armor and artillery support) on one side and the Chinese 117th Division on the other near the village of Pakchon on the Taeryong River (which is North Korean territory today). Which Countries Were Involved In The Korean War? Robert O'Neill (historian) . Norman. Determining that the Chinese would move to cut the road during the night and believing it dangerous to remain any further forward than required, Coad requested approval for a limited withdrawal. 2000. , Walker elected to stand north of the Chongchon and Taeryong rivers in response to the PVA offensive, and the following day Coad received new orders to hold the left forward section of the bridgehead over the Chongchon. Australian Military Historical Publications . 3 RAR had secured the ridge and the road running south from Pakchon was safe. The following day they attacked an American artillery battery which was guarding a vital concrete bridge near Kujin. Yet the offensive soon forced the UN forces into a disorganised withdrawal. The PVA and KPA were temporarily forced to withdraw north, while the UN successfully reinforced its positions, holding on the Chongchon Line. Book: Breen, Bob. A Company, in particular, suffered many casualties during their withdrawal.   A Company was commanded by Captain Bill Chitts, while B Company was led by Captain D'arcy Laughlin, after Major George Thirlwell had broken his leg in a vehicle accident two days before. The Encyclopaedia of Australia's Battles.  To halt the PVA advance, the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade was ordered to defend the lower crossings of the Taeryong and Chongchon rivers as part of a rearguard, in conjunction with the US 24th Infantry Division further upstream on the right. After the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade's initial success, they had in turn been counter-attacked by the PVA before being pushed off the high ground during the night.
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