when cosimo returns to florence, who runs the city?

[48] According to U.S. President and historian John Adams, "at this time the citizens of the state of Florence were in secret very discontented, because the Duke Lorenzo, desiring to reduce the government to the form of a principality, appeared to disdain to consult any longer with the magistrates and his fellow-citizens as he used to do, and gave audiences very seldom, and with much impatience; he attended less to the business of the city, and caused all public affairs to be managed by Messer Goro da Pistoia, his secretary. Cosimo's father, Giovanni, founded the Medici Bank, following the dissolution of another Medici relative’s bank. But, in order not to be taken by surprise like the Albizzi, he perfected the system. Their ancestral home is in the Mugello valley. The birthday of Cosimo I, Wednesday, June 12 figures prominently in this festive calendar. Investment in culture, including the patronage of artists and architects and the purchase of books and manuscripts, became a fundamental expression of the Medici’s aristocratic way of life; it was continued by Cosimo’s son, Piero, and his grandson, Lorenzo (died 1492; dubbed “the Magnificent”). [63] At the news of this, the exiled Strozzi family invaded and tried to depose Cosimo, but were defeated at Montemurlo. Cardinal Passerini's regency government proved highly unpopular. In alliance with Spain and the Holy Roman Empire, Cosimo defeated the Republic of Siena, which was allied with France, in the Battle of Marciano on August 2, 1554. However, in 1527 the riotous Spanish army of Emperor Charles V overran Rome, and, during this moment of weakness, republicans again expelled the Medici from Florence, only to be punished in 1530 when pope and emperor were reconciled. The golden florin of the Republic of Florence was the first European gold coin struck in sufficient quantities to play a significant commercial role since the 7th century. [19] Niccoli was a keen collector of ancient manuscripts, which he bequeathed to Cosimo upon his death in 1437. The poet Elizabeth Barrett Browning, who is buried in Piazzale Donatello, the small English cemetery, noted that the city was “cheap, tranquil, cheerful and beautiful.” The Horne Museum, near Santa Croce, and the Stibbert Museum, in the north, are examples of houses and collections left by foreigners to their adopted city. The second Duke, Cosimo I, established a strong Florentine navy and expanded his territory, conquering Siena. A plot against Lorenzo and his younger brother Guiliano is hatched by a dangerous coalition. Early in his reign he shows signs of abandoning Lorenzo's equal-handed relationship with Naples and Milan, inclining instead to Naples. Visconti then turned to Bologna. Republican Florence was led briefly by a fiery Dominican preacher, Girolamo Savonarola, who boldly condemned the luxury and urbane culture of his predecessors. His son Cosimo, who dominated the, …the basis of Niccoli’s library, Cosimo de’ Medici set up the Biblioteca Marciana in Florence in the convent of San Marco. The coup failed. [36] He patronised Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Botticelli, among others. Bracciolini was born Arezzo in 1380. Florence’s former Grand Duke commissioned several artistic renderings of him during his reign, including portraits, statues, reliefs and even coins, many of which are part of the Bargello’s extensive collection. The city’s ordeal during this period has been vividly portrayed by the chronicler Matteo Villani and by the writer Giovanni Boccaccio in the preface to his stories of the Decameron. In 1433 he is arrested by a rival faction. The town of Arezzo fell to a Florentine army in 1384 and Pisa, a great prize, was taken in 1406. Outside, in relations with other powers, it is generally acknowledged that Cosimo is the ruler of Florence - by now a city state of considerable significance. city. Lorenzo's brother Giuliano was killed before his own eyes in the Pazzi conspiracy of 1478. In the spring of 1459 he entertained the new pope Pius II, who stopped in Florence on his Cosimo’s father, Giovanni, stepped back from the operations of the Medici Bank in 1420, leaving Cosimo and his brother Lorenzo to run it. The Medici year in Florence will be celebrated until the end of 2019 to commemorate the 500th anniversary of when Cosimo I de’ Medici and Catherine (Caterina) de’ Medici, two pivotal figures in European history, were born. Thereafter the grand duchy becomes attached to the imperial house of Austria (by the treaty of Vienna in 1738). From such a foundation, Florentine families, led by the Bardi and the Peruzzi, came to dominate both banking and international merchant business. The city generally declined under prolonged Medici rule, a process that was marked only by the extended reign of Cosimo III (1670–1723) and the end of the family with the death of his son, Gian Gastone (died 1737). "[48], When Cardinal Giulio was elected Pope Clement VII, he appointed Ippolito de' Medici and Alessandro de' Medici to rule Florence, under the guardianship of Cardinal Passerini. Such great power alone would have been sufficient to set the oligarchy against him; his “popular” policies rendered him completely intolerable. [7] The Guelphs lost the reins of power after Florence suffered a catastrophic defeat at the Battle of Montaperti against Siena in 1260. One of the few successes was the conquest of Pisa in 1406, making Florence a maritime power at last. As a result, no Western aid was forthcoming and the Byzantine Empire's fate was sealed. [66] The ducal family moved into the Palazzo Pitti in 1560. By nightfall three of the Pazzi, together with the archbishop of Pisa in his ecclesiastical attire, are hanging from windows of Florence's government building, the Signoria. Florence's population continued to grow into the 13th century, reaching a level of 30,000 inhabitants. [55] The roster of names in the lottery were replaced every five years. Pater patriae: 1434-1464: From 1434 Cosimo de' Medici is unmistakably the most powerful man in Florence, even though his family's cause has suffered a severe setback in the previous year. [65] Cosimo founded the port city of Livorno and allowed the city's inhabitants to enjoy freedom of religion. [11] This, combined with the economic downturn, took its toll on the city-state. When Cosimo was finally asked to return to Florence, he had even more power and prestige. The future seemed dark to the old man as he roamed through his palace, sighing, “Too big a house for such a small family.” He died in Careggi in 1464, and a huge crowd accompanied his body to the tomb in S. Lorenzo. The same year saw the creation of the Palazzo del Popolo. The main purpose of these counties was to ease the gathering of local militias.[58]. He is king in all but name.”. The war was concluded in 1427, and the Visconti of Milan were forced to sign an unfavourable treaty. During Lorenzo's reign, the Renaissance truly descended on Florence. Political councils were held in his home; the magistrates he chose were Additionally, the Bargello National Museum is introducing a new tour called Cosimo I: The Sculpted Portrait, which will introduce the visitor to a chain of significant sculptures dedicated to Cosimo through the building. News of this sacrilege reached Pope Sixtus IV (who had also supported the conspiracy against the Medicis). He was named the priore of the Republic of Florence, giving him even more power as one of nine Signoria who governed the city-state. The Medici year in Florence will be celebrated until the end of 2019 to commemorate the 500 th anniversary of when Cosimo I de’ Medici and Catherine (Caterina) de’ Medici, two pivotal figures in European history, were born. Piazza Libertà 6/7/8 red at the end of via San Gallo, Florence. The buildings from this era serve as Florence's best examples of Gothic Architecture. They underwrote the accomplishments that are now singled out with the term “Renaissance,” and their palaces came to dominate the city as fully as the church buildings in which they established their family chapels. Cosimo required undivided power in order to carry out his plans as well as to satisfy his passions, above all his passion for building. Niccolò Niccoli was the leading Florence humanist scholar of the time. Brunelleschi completed the “marble hat” of his famous cupola at the time of Cosimo’s return in 1434; in addition, he almost completed the work on S. Lorenzo and on the Sagresta Vecchia and began work on the strange rotunda of Sta. Cosimo is visited by an unexpected guest, the Pope. His father, considered the first of the great Medici, had inherited the family business based on cloth and silk manufacturing and on banking operations and made the family powerfully prosperous.

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