Intermodulation is a scenario where signals outside the monitored channel combine nonlinearly to produce a frequency of monitored channel. The concept of second- and third-order intercept points is not valid for an ADC, because the distortion products don't vary predictably (as a function of signal amplitude). This is shown graphically in Figure 6-140. The larger number of tones more closely simulates the wideband frequency spectrum of cellular telephone systems such as AMPS or GSM. The IM2 level of the jumper cable with diode was measured at 150 dBc. But in all cases, the intermod products caused are close to the HF tone and are liable to be masked. Intermodulation noise is due to the presence of the products of intermodulation. With respect to a single-band system, this spectrum shows the third-order IM product as the one nearest to the generating frequencies and under some circumstances falling into the receive band. To define the order, we add the harmonic multiplying constants of the two frequencies producing the intermodulation product. The jumper cables create neither IM2 nor IM3 in a measureable level. The IM2 measurement was performed with f1 = 936 MHz and f2 = 1850 MHz at 2 * 20 W (+43 dBm). The order of the intermodulation product depends on how many input signals are mixed and which harmonics of each of those input signals have mixed. For the power station UHF band of frequencies, the third order intermodulation free channels would be Channels 21A, 22, 23A, 26 and 27. This often manifests the ‘V’ shape for the same reason as dynamic harmonic distortion plots – the distortion-to-noise ratio, made visible by the low %THD of the AUT (as here) having respectably high linearity. These spurious signals fall in the vicinity of ƒ1 and may show up in the receiving passband with sufficient amplitude to cause interference problems. So, while the IP3 point most often will never be reached in practice, it is still used as a figure of merit in high speed systems. Now, suppose a second harmonic from the RF generators is 180 degrees out-of-phase with the mixer's second harmonic. Figure 25.4 shows the 3rd order intermodulation distortion (IMD) products from a 2-tone signal test of the LTC6400-20.2 At low frequencies, the distortion products approach −100dBc. Werner Wild received his Dipl.-Ing. In order to keep these intermodulation products below an admissible level, the input of the main amplifier is preceded by an attenuator of adjustable attenuation. With a low level (well below clipping) two-tone input signal, and two data points, draw the second- and third-order IMD lines as are shown in Figure 1-60, because one point and a slope determine each straight line. Therefore, with a nearly quadratic characteristic (diode or transistor), the second-order IM product is dominant; with its cubic characteristic, the third-order IM product is also dominant. The fourth-order intermodulation products are, The fifth-order intermodulation products are. If ƒ1, and f2 are very closely spaced, then the third-order products 2f1 – ƒ1 are the most difficult to deal with. Second and superior order transfer functions determine the non-linearity of the laser device. A variety of attempts to reduce or eliminate intermodulation have been carried out and are reported in this article. Second-order intermodulation products are, where frequencies f3, f4, and f5 are the undesirable distortion products that show up at the output. It is generated when two signals are applied to a nonlinear device. Tips 3rd-order Intermodulation 3IM. Third Order Intermoduluation Distortion Performance Test. SMPTE testing can be sensitive to high order non-linearity, namely some kinds of crossover distortion, and LF effects such as signal transformer saturation, and thermal distortion. they are in a 4:1 amplitude ratio. The theoretical approach showed that no relationship or equation for calculating the power levels of the particular IM products can be given because the transmission characteristics of galvanic contacts are never … As estimated, the quadratic shape of the transmission characteristics of the diode is dominant. Stephen Harman, Aveillant Ltd., Cambridge, U.K. Jason Zhang, Jonas Urbonas and Giampiero Esposito, Maury Microwave, Ontario, Calif. Andrea Arias-Purdue and Petra Rowell, Teledyne Technologies, Thousand Oaks, Calif. Figure 3-20. Table 1 lists the test results. The following Table 8.7 shows in greater detail the operating channels having no third order intermodulation interference. Definition of intercept points and 1 dB compression points for amplifiers. In PCN, GSM and PCS systems with certain carrier frequencies, it is possible that the third-order intermodulation product falls into the receive band and disturbs or even completely blocks discrete channels. Figure 1-60 shows the graphical analysis for this example. Operating channels having no third order intermodulation interference. Where they intersect will be the second- and third-order intercept points, respectively. The theoretical approach showed that no relationship or equation for calculating the power levels of the particular IM products can be given because the transmission characteristics of galvanic contacts are never known. SECOND AND THIRD-ORDER INTERCEPT POINTS (IP2, IP3), 1-dB COMPRESSION POINT For example, (f1+f2) is second order, (2f1-f2) is third order, (3f1-2f) is fifth order, & etc. However, the performance is still good even up to 250MHz-300MHz, which makes the LTC6400 suitable for even mid-to-high IF systems. 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