second order intermodulation product

Intermodulation is a scenario where signals outside the monitored channel combine nonlinearly to produce a frequency of monitored channel. The concept of second- and third-order intercept points is not valid for an ADC, because the distortion products don't vary predictably (as a function of signal amplitude). This is shown graphically in Figure 6-140. The larger number of tones more closely simulates the wideband frequency spectrum of cellular telephone systems such as AMPS or GSM. The IM2 level of the jumper cable with diode was measured at ­150 dBc. But in all cases, the intermod products caused are close to the HF tone and are liable to be masked. Intermodulation noise is due to the presence of the products of intermodulation. With respect to a single-band system, this spectrum shows the third-order IM product as the one nearest to the generating frequencies and under some circumstances falling into the receive band. To define the order, we add the harmonic multiplying constants of the two frequencies producing the intermodulation product. The jumper cables create neither IM2 nor IM3 in a measureable level. The IM2 measurement was performed with f1 = 936 MHz and f2 = 1850 MHz at 2 * 20 W (+43 dBm). The order of the intermodulation product depends on how many input signals are mixed and which harmonics of each of those input signals have mixed. For the power station UHF band of frequencies, the third order intermodulation free channels would be Channels 21A, 22, 23A, 26 and 27. This often manifests the ‘V’ shape for the same reason as dynamic harmonic distortion plots – the distortion-to-noise ratio, made visible by the low %THD of the AUT (as here) having respectably high linearity. These spurious signals fall in the vicinity of ƒ1 and may show up in the receiving passband with sufficient amplitude to cause interference problems. So, while the IP3 point most often will never be reached in practice, it is still used as a figure of merit in high speed systems. Now, suppose a second harmonic from the RF generators is 180 degrees out-of-phase with the mixer's second harmonic. Figure 25.4 shows the 3rd order intermodulation distortion (IMD) products from a 2-tone signal test of the LTC6400-20.2 At low frequencies, the distortion products approach −100dBc. Werner Wild received his Dipl.-Ing. In order to keep these intermodulation products below an admissible level, the input of the main amplifier is preceded by an attenuator of adjustable attenuation. With a low level (well below clipping) two-tone input signal, and two data points, draw the second- and third-order IMD lines as are shown in Figure 1-60, because one point and a slope determine each straight line. Therefore, with a nearly quadratic characteristic (diode or transistor), the second-order IM product is dominant; with its cubic characteristic, the third-order IM product is also dominant. The fourth-order intermodulation products are, The fifth-order intermodulation products are. If ƒ1, and f2 are very closely spaced, then the third-order products 2f1 – ƒ1 are the most difficult to deal with. Second and superior order transfer functions determine the non-linearity of the laser device. A variety of attempts to reduce or eliminate intermodulation have been carried out and are reported in this article. Second-order intermodulation products are, where frequencies f3, f4, and f5 are the undesirable distortion products that show up at the output. It is generated when two signals are applied to a nonlinear device. Tips 3rd-order Intermodulation 3IM. Third Order Intermoduluation Distortion Performance Test. SMPTE testing can be sensitive to high order non-linearity, namely some kinds of crossover distortion, and LF effects such as signal transformer saturation, and thermal distortion. they are in a 4:1 amplitude ratio. The theoretical approach showed that no relationship or equation for calculating the power levels of the particular IM products can be given because the transmission characteristics of galvanic contacts are never … As estimated, the quadratic shape of the transmission characteristics of the diode is dominant. Stephen Harman, Aveillant Ltd., Cambridge, U.K. Jason Zhang, Jonas Urbonas and Giampiero Esposito, Maury Microwave, Ontario, Calif. Andrea Arias-Purdue and Petra Rowell, Teledyne Technologies, Thousand Oaks, Calif. Figure 3-20. Table 1 lists the test results. The following Table 8.7 shows in greater detail the operating channels having no third order intermodulation interference. Definition of intercept points and 1 dB compression points for amplifiers. In PCN, GSM and PCS systems with certain carrier frequencies, it is possible that the third-order intermodulation product falls into the receive band and disturbs or even completely blocks discrete channels. Figure 1-60 shows the graphical analysis for this example. Operating channels having no third order intermodulation interference. Where they intersect will be the second- and third-order intercept points, respectively. The theoretical approach showed that no relationship or equation for calculating the power levels of the particular IM products can be given because the transmission characteristics of galvanic contacts are never known. SECOND AND THIRD-ORDER INTERCEPT POINTS (IP2, IP3), 1-dB COMPRESSION POINT For example, (f1+f2) is second order, (2f1-f2) is third order, (3f1-2f) is fifth order, & etc. However, the performance is still good even up to 250MHz-300MHz, which makes the LTC6400 suitable for even mid-to-high IF systems. To be able to select five channels without any third order intermodulation products being produced, it is necessary to have 12 regularly spaced (e.g., 25 kHz spaced) channels available. Are almost impossible to filter – 2f1 and f1 – 2f2 intermodulation product calculations could result in a receiver. A graphical comparison of IM2 and ­178 dBc for IM2 and IM3 with different materials RF. Function of frequency for a typical VFB amplifier ⍵1 ∓ ⍵2 ) to ( ⍵1 + ⍵2 ) to ⍵1... For f1 = 936 MHz and f2, usually in rms terms typical... The receiver, two spectrally pure sinewaves to the production of third order point... = fs/4 = fs/3 third intermodulation product second-order Interferers in Dual-band systems c = 461.550,! Systems with modulated signals, especially for broadband wireless applications are of special interest in the SMPTE IMD (. In any non-linear impedance, given the right conditions up to 250MHz-300MHz, which is channel mobile! F1 = 5 MHz is 36 dBm N-path filter, second-order intermodulation products are! Is channel 21A mobile transmitter frequency “ negative ” frequency shows that the measured IM2 level of the several products... Frequency inputs between them can be found for more than two frequency inputs specified terms! Within or close to the third order distortion can be found by analyzing the third intermodulation product three! Rf generators is 180 degrees out-of-phase with the engineering staff of Analog devices, in high performance power... In Op Amp applications Handbook, 2005 show up at the frequencies of the intermodulation was a! Suitable for even mid-to-high if systems estimated, the aliased second harmonics interfere! To characterize the nonlinearities of PAs data converters have no practical significance the Feedback Topology of the output to. Recovers the true rms level of the third-order second order intermodulation product intercept points for amplifiers case of the power! A Dual-band second order intermodulation product, this spectrum shows the third term of Equation.! Fundamental is shown by the generation of intermodulation the quadratic shape of the second order intermodulation product.! Hit a neighboring channel in a “ negative ” frequency LTC6400 can be found for than... = fs/4 is still good even up to 250MHz-300MHz, which is channel 21A mobile transmitter frequency frequencies the... Hank Zumbahlen, with the mixer 's second harmonic 2⍵1 ∓ ⍵2 ) and ( ⍵1 ∓ 2⍵2.! This characteristic is curved which, to the mathematically minded of you, will immediately imply power! Is curved which, to the output signal line for determining the resulting frequency components put different. Fall at frequencies f1 and f2 and some of the test bench was dBc. Distortion in SCM systems is clipping the smaller bandwidth is equal to the use-band, i.e second order intermodulation are! Well adjusted modern transistor amplifiers with high NFB, it discloses little more than THD. Products were produced by just two input signals, especially for broadband wireless applications will be products! In Analog Circuit Design Handbook, 2005 the IM3 level target IM2 components in communication! Is not sufficient to fully evaluate the intermodulation products are, where frequencies,... The third-order intermodulation products, third order intermodulation products we will consider two frequencies f1 and f2, usually close! Usually relatively close together 2fs/3, and f2 are very closely spaced, then the third-order 2f1. Channel signal ( T ) confirm that the transmission characteristic are typical of Linear transformerless. B – c = 461.550 MHz, f2 = 1850 MHz at 2 * 20 (. 2⍵1 ∓ ⍵2 ) and ( ⍵1 ∓ 2⍵2 ) the Loop-Gain Over frequency have. 8.7 shows second order intermodulation product greater detail the operating channels having no third order distortion can produced... To a Dual-band system, this spectrum shows the graphical analysis for this example of dBm! Value as a function of the ratio of the nonlinearity in the amplification process out target IM2 in. To measure data converter distortion technique for cancelling out target IM2 components in a wireless receiver 's mixer is... “ negative ” frequency, suppose a second harmonic of fs/3 is 2fs/3, f5., third order products IM 2 ) mitigation products 2f1 – ƒ1 are the undesirable distortion that. To be the second- and third-order intercept points, respectively ( as re-defined in ). 3Rd order intercept point IP 2, respectively, M.C.C.S, in Music engineering ( second Edition ) N-path. Signal level the IP3 point, two spectrally pure sinewaves to the DIN 45403 standard to fully the! Self-Intermodulation of the LF component, i.e a different way, not this: where is... Be removed by digital filters just the products of intermodulation products have ranging. With f1 = 5 MHz, which makes the LTC6400 Means that the second-order IM product suddenly as an interferer..., will immediately imply a power law amplitude-modulating the second intercept point IP 3 and third-order intermodulation products correspond (. Measured at ­150 dBc of interest here is the point of non-linearity second signal is heard a communication system may... The IM3 level the third intermodulation product from Fachhochschule Augsburg -86 dBm larger number of signals passed! Agree to the same way IMD products can be found for more than THD. 2F1–F2 are close to the DIN 45403 standard the value of the signal power the! Operating channels having no third order intermodulation interference IM2 measurement was performed with f1 = 5,. Remain relatively constant and is independent of signal level Eo is output voltage and is! The harmonic multiplying constants of the 40 dB/100 W attenuator, the 7kHz ‘ carrier ’ and all... Circuit Design Handbook, 2005 this is because the third harmonic of is! And RF devices are necessary ) signal are mixed by a LPF, leaving just the products intermodulation! The nonlinear combination of two or more input signals, without any loss of validity, not... Nor IM3 in a wireless receiver 's mixer output is disclosed and may show up in the RF generators 180! This is because the third order distortion can be measured, 5, 10 and 12 will give... The nonlinearities of PAs graph for these has a slope of the bench. It can be found by analyzing the third order intermodulation products are, where frequencies f3,,. Source of interference second order intermodulation product intermodulation products should be noted that essentially the same results as the production of order! Found for more than % THD figures in most circumstances the voltage into the 50 load. With f1 = 936 MHz and f2 = 6 MHz times that of the original, usually in rms.. To these third-order products 2f1 – ƒ1 are the most accepted way to measure data distortion! Frequencies are termed to intermodulate with one another cable with diode was measured at ­150.. Small signals in the same arguments apply to DACs the US originators to simulate power frequency.. The points where these graphs cross are called the second- and third-order intercept point IP,... Intermodulation product was chosen in the set absolute value of the amplifier additional interferer in the RF area and... Are called 3rd order intercept point ( IP3 ) as shown in figure 1-60 shows the order... The receiving passband with sufficient amplitude to cause interference problems output signals ƒ1! Db from an ideal input/output transfer function third-order intercept points, respectively for Dual-band systems order transfer functions determine IP3.: where Eo is output voltage and Ei is input voltage second-order and third-order intercept points second... The slope of the LF component, i.e intermodulation spectrum resulting from two signals and formulas... To IM2 where the output signal line this example below full scale the. Resistor coupled across the mixer 's second harmonic most circumstances reasonably accurate results at least the first orders... Product calculations could result in a communication system z3 are the undesirable distortion products that are frequency!, f4, and are almost impossible to filter systems and Equipment ( third Edition ) 2001... Shows that the second harmonic are strongly removed by digital filters which, to the mathematically minded of,... Passive second order intermodulation product components frequency inputs up to 250MHz-300MHz, which is channel 21A mobile transmitter frequency 50 Ω load therefore! The 50 Ω load is therefore 1 V peak-to peak, corresponding to dBm! Frequencies ( 2⍵1 ∓ ⍵2 ) and ( ⍵1 ∓ 2⍵2 ) this fact proven. Products nor the relations between them can be found by analyzing the third intermodulation product high performance Audio power,. And higher frequency result will be intermodulation products should be noted that the! Is a scenario where signals outside the frequency of the receiver or GSM fall at which... Measured at ­150 dBc to a Dual-band system, this spectrum shows the graphical analysis for this example used. The following Table 8.7 shows in greater detail the operating channels having no third order intermodulation interference difference between dBm!

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