This had devastating effects on the GDR, where regular mass demonstrations received increasing support.  In 1989, Hungary decided to dismantle the Iron Curtain and open its border with Austria, causing the emigration of thousands of East Germans to West Germany via Hungary and Austria. , The 16 national parks in Germany include the Jasmund National Park, the Vorpommern Lagoon Area National Park, the Müritz National Park, the Wadden Sea National Parks, the Harz National Park, the Hainich National Park, the Black Forest National Park, the Saxon Switzerland National Park, the Bavarian Forest National Park and the Berchtesgaden National Park.  The German energy transition (Energiewende) is the recognised move to a sustainable economy by means of energy efficiency and renewable energy.  Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute over €105.3 billion to German GDP.  In light of revolutionary movements in Europe, intellectuals and commoners started the revolutions of 1848 in the German states, raising the German Question.  In the 2011 census, 1.9% of the census population (1.52 million people) gave their religion as Islam, but this figure is deemed unreliable because a disproportionate number of adherents of this religion (and other religions, such as Judaism) are likely to have made use of their right not to answer the question. As of 2017[update] Germany is divided into 401 districts (Kreise) at a municipal level; these consist of 294 rural districts and 107 urban districts.  The second-highest official in the German order of precedence is the Bundestagspräsident (president of the Bundestag), who is elected by the Bundestag and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body. The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community. In the German Revolution (November 1918), Emperor Wilhelm II and the ruling princes abdicated their positions and Germany was declared a federal republic.  Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank, which is headquartered in Frankfurt.  The relocation of the government was completed in 1999, and modernisation of the east German economy was scheduled to last until 2019. The renowned Babelsberg Studio in Potsdam was established in 1912, thus being the first large-scale film studio in the world.  The Golden Bull issued in 1356 provided the constitutional structure of the Empire and codified the election of the emperor by seven prince-electors. , From February 2019–2020, average monthly temperatures in Germany ranged from a low of 3.3 °C (37.9 °F) in January 2020 to a high of 19.8 °C (67.6 °F) in June 2019. In 1806 the Imperium was dissolved; France, Russia, Prussia and the Habsburgs (Austria) competed for hegemony in the German states during the Napoleonic Wars. So far every chancellor has been a member of one of these parties. , Under the Hohenstaufen emperors (1138–1254), German princes encouraged German settlement to the south and east (Ostsiedlung). The territory initially known as East Francia stretched from the Rhine in the west to the Elbe River in the east and from the North Sea to the Alps. After four years of warfare, in which approximately two million German soldiers were killed, a general armistice ended the fighting. , With a population of 80.2 million according to the 2011 census, rising to 83.1 million as of 2019[update], Germany is the most populous country in the European Union, the second most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the 19th most populous country in the world. Prussia was the dominant constituent state of the new empire; the King of Prussia ruled as its Kaiser, and Berlin became its capital.  Its GDP per capita measured in purchasing power standards amounts to 121% of the EU27 average (100%).  From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south, east, and west, coming into contact with the Celtic, Iranian, Baltic, and Slavic tribes. Irreligion in Germany is strongest in the former East Germany, which used to be predominantly Protestant before the enforcement of state atheism, and in major metropolitan areas. ", "The Growing Popularity of International Study in Germany", "Rankings: Universität Heidelberg in International Comparison", "Humboldt's educational ideal and modern academic education", "Germany statistics summary (2002–present)", "Overweight and obesity – BMI statistics", "BBC poll: Germany most popular country in the world", "World Service Global Poll: Negative views of Russia on the rise", "The country with one people and 1,200 sausages", "Christmas Traditions in Austria, Germany, Switzerland", "Artikel 2 EV – Vertrag zwischen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik über die Herstellung der Einheit Deutschlands (Einigungsvertrag – EV k.a.Abk. Street fighting in the major industrial centres, the occupation of the Ruhr by Belgian and French troops, and a period of hyperinflation followed. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire.  In the spring of 1940, Germany conquered Denmark and Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France, forcing the French government to sign an armistice. Please check you have entered your email address correctly before continuing.  A global opinion poll for the BBC revealed that Germany is recognised for having the most positive influence in the world in 2013 and 2014. After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the semi-presidential Weimar Republic. The majority of migrants live in western Germany, in particular in urban areas. TV Überlingen - 3. According to an OECD report in 2014, Germany is the world's third leading destination for international study.  Following the end of the war, surviving Nazi officials were tried for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials. In total 17 million people were systematically murdered, including 6 million Jews, at least 130,000 Romani, 275,000 persons with disabilities, thousands of Jehovah's Witnesses, thousands of homosexuals, and hundreds of thousands of political and religious opponents. Other religions comprise less than one percent of Germany's population.  The Grimms also gathered and codified regional variants of the German language, grounding their work in historical principles; their Deutsches Wörterbuch, or German Dictionary, sometimes called the Grimm dictionary, was begun in 1838 and the first volumes published in 1854.  Vernacular architecture in Germany is often identified by its timber framing (Fachwerk) traditions and varies across regions, and among carpentry styles. , Under Augustus, Rome began to invade Germania. Germany promotes the creation of a more unified European political, economic and security apparatus. )", "Kraftwerk maintain their legacy as electro-pioneers", "Minimal Understandings: The Berlin Decade, The Minimal Continuum, and Debates on the Legacy of German Techno", 10.1093/gao/9781884446054.article.T031531, "Bauhaus: The Single Most Influential School of Design", "Berlin as a fashion capital: the improbable rise", "Leipzig Book Fair: Cultural sideshow with a serious side", "German consumers spent €4.4bn on video games in 2018", "Top 10 Heaviest Beer-drinking Countries: Czech Republic and Germany Sink Most Pints", "492 Years of Good Beer: Germans Toast the Anniversary of Their Beer Purity Law", "Germany Was Just Awarded Its 300th Michelin Star", "DFB: presidential candidate Fritz Keller promises 'no more one-man show, "The NFL and Major League Baseball are the most attended sports leagues in the world", "What we will miss about Michael Schumacher", "Vettel makes Formula One history with eighth successive victory", Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe, autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, Commission against Racism and Intolerance, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Germany&oldid=984038480, German-speaking countries and territories, Member states of the Union for the Mediterranean, States and territories established in 1871, States and territories established in 1949, States and territories established in 1990, Articles containing Old High German (ca.  The Humboldt University of Berlin, founded in 1810 by the liberal educational reformer Wilhelm von Humboldt, became the academic model for many Western universities. Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Bundestag (Federal Diet) and Bundesrat (Federal Council), which together form the legislative body.  The Enabling Act gave Hitler unrestricted legislative power, overriding the constitution; his government established a centralised totalitarian state, withdrew from the League of Nations, and dramatically increased the country's rearmament. Conversely, the southeast regions have more extreme temperatures.  Cultural ties and economic interests have crafted a bond between the two countries resulting in Atlanticism. 154 123 25.  According to SIPRI, Germany was the fourth largest exporter of major arms in the world from 2014 to 2018.  In the contemporary era Germany has developed eleven Universities of Excellence. Early German cinema was particularly influential with German expressionists such as Robert Wiene and Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau. Significant natural resources include iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, and nickel. It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and carried out by the implementing organisations.  The third-highest official and the head of government is the chancellor, who is appointed by the Bundespräsident after being elected by the party or coalition with the most seats in the Bundestag.  The Port of Hamburg is one of the top twenty largest container ports in the world. Members of the Hanseatic League, mostly north German towns, prospered in the expansion of trade.  The House of Habsburg held the imperial crown from 1438 until the death of Charles VI in 1740. Please check you have entered your email address correctly.  The motorway (Autobahn) is widely known for having no federally mandated speed limit for some classes of vehicles.  Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became one of the world's most renowned architects in the second half of the 20th century; he conceived of the glass façade skyscraper.  Research institutions in Germany include the Max Planck Society, the Helmholtz Association, and the Fraunhofer Society and the Leibniz Association. Following the Napoleonic Wars and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the German Confederation was formed in 1815. However, Germany is witnessing increased birth rates and migration rates since the beginning of the 2010s, particularly a rise in the number of well-educated migrants.
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