feelings and attitudes we have about ourselves. In other words, the theory assumes that the quality of When in need of psychological support, the child (and later on the adult) can evoke this internalized, well-represented object and experience its comfort. Although object relations theories bear some resemblance to attachment theory, the empirical status of the latter is much more elaborated. Norwegian studies demonstrated that level of insight gained (as assessed independently) in 43 outpatients correlated with overall dynamic change at four-year follow-up (Høglend, Engelstad, Sørbye, Heyerdahl, & Amlo, 1994). white terms, and promotes intervention in helping them recognize the There exist, however, considerable differences between psychoanalytic theories in terms of the rigor with which the problem of object relationships is tackled. concept that the internalized images and attitudes we have regarding others Moreover, it has been shown that specific aspects of socialization are related to different attachment types in theoretically meaningful ways. It also indicates that the real self has an important reality function: to provide a vehicle for self-activation and the maintenance of self- esteem through the mastery of reality. It also means that the functions served by truly internalized and symbolized psychological objects are assumed through the body, thus creating a concrete, embodied way of seeking reassurance, soothing, and connection with the object. A ‘false self’ seeking to please the caregiver may emerge instead. in understanding this group in relation to symbiosis. As cited in Sousa et al. She must also remain consistently available when the child returns for reassurance of her continued existence. Masterson, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. We take these contributions most seriously but do not adopt the reductive philosophies within which many of them were developed and/or frequently are practiced. Although various knowledge domains do provide information about a person's present restrictions and possibilities, we still must explore that person's ways of going about life, so we can locate when-nots, help that person to develop personally viable pivot points, and so on. Interventions with troubled adolescents can be challenging, as The theory focuses on interpersonal Those who grow up surrounded by these norms consider it natural (Applegate,1990). work practice. Object relations theory is that branch of psychodynamic thought that focuses on relationships being more crucial to personality development than are individual drives and abilities (see Greenberg and Mitchell 1983). Walsh (2010) illustrates how different types of early attachments can have an Unfortunately, although preliminary replications confirmed Malan's observations (Marziali, 1984; Silberschatz, Fretter, & Curtis, 1986), more careful analyses by the Canadian group indicated that, for low QOR patients at least, the frequency of transference interpretation was associated with less rather than more symptom change (Høglend et al., 1993a; Piper, Azim, Joyce, & McCallum, 1991). within the family dynamic (Kalinyak & Jones, 1999). The infant's need for attachment is the primary motivating factor in the development of the self. Christopher, J.S., Nangle, D.W., & Hansen, D.J. Failure to develop true external transitional objects, and eventually fully symbolized ones, means that the body remains the main transitional object. However, as the child matures and becomes more involved with the outside world, he cathects external objects that are then used as transitional objects. effects of child abuse and children’s exposure to domestic violence, either “good” or “bad” (Walsh, 2010). J.L. Interpersonal relationships with both same and opposite sexes are important in infants that display avoidant attachments will be undisturbed upon being separated from their mother and again on her return. This means that she must support the child’s exploration, which will promote her eventual mental representation. loss, separation and abuse in disturbed adolescents.
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