Scotus also developed a complex argument for the existence of God, and argued for the Immaculate conception of Mary. • Thales of Miletus (c. 624 – 546 BCE). He also held to Catholic doctrines such as that of free will, which some Reformers rejected in favour of the doctrine of predestination. Deniz Cem Önduygu works as a designer in Istanbul. His philosophy is often divided between his early period, exemplified by the Tractatus, and later period, articulated in the Philosophical Investigations. Many labour unions and workers' parties worldwide were also influenced by Marxist ideas, while various theoretical variants, such as Leninism, Stalinism, Trotskyism, and Maoism, were developed from them. His metaphysical writings have inspired centuries of Pagan, Christian, Jewish, Islamic and Gnostic metaphysicians and mystics. In addition to his work in linguistics, he has written on war, politics, and mass media, and is the author of over 100 books. Francis returned home, began preaching on the streets, and soon amassed a following. In 1895, he published his Rules of the Sociological Method and set up the first European department of sociology, becoming France's first professor of sociology. His ideas influenced many thinkers in Germany during his lifetime. His followers were known as Lollards, a somewhat rebellious movement, which preached anticlerical and biblically-centred reforms. Rene Descartes Averroes' philosophy was considered controversial in Muslim circles. Socrates (c. 469 BC - 399 BC) was a classical Greek Athenian philosopher. Pascal also wrote in defense of the scientific method. He started the greatest school of philosophy in Athens, the Academy. At age 25, he published his doctoral dissertation, On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, which examined the four distinct aspects of experience in the phenomenal world; consequently, he has been influential in the history of phenomenology. Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 - January 27, 1814) was a German philosopher. He was also a philosopher, theologian, Christian apologist, playwright, and poet. The general importance of Abelard lies in his having fixed more decisively than anyone before him the scholastic manner of philosophizing, with the object of giving a formally rational expression to received ecclesiastical doctrine. The administrative powers were the executive, the legislative, and the judicial. He confronted indulgence salesman Johann Tetzel with his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517. He was the founder of the Eleatic school of philosophy. He is said to have ended his days in Metapontum. This idea was revolutionary for the time and contrasted with other philosophical doctrines that claimed the universe was based on something objective, outside the human influence. Modern: (17th - 20th Century) Age of Reason (17th Century) Age of Enlightenment (18th Century) Modern (19th - 20th Century) The dates are just rough guides, and the classifications rather arbitrary (for example, the Modern period is sometimes considered to start with the Age of Reason philosophers, and sometimes with the Renaissance philosophers). By the 1870s the scientific community and much of the general public had accepted evolution as a fact. He wrote critical texts on religion, morality, contemporary culture, philosophy, and science, displaying a fondness for metaphor, irony, and aphorism. The story of his affair with and love for Heloise has become legendary. Even the young Martin Luther still wrote glosses on the Sentences, and John Calvin quoted from it over 100 times in his Institutes. Their speculation on atoms, taken from Leucippus, bears a passing and partial resemblance to the nineteenth-century understanding of atomic structure that has led some to regard Democritus as more of a scientist than other Greek philosophers; however their ideas rested on very different bases. There is obviously also a certain amount of overlap … The society took an active role in the politics of Croton, but this eventually led to their downfall. He created an original system of propositional logic in order to better understand the workings of the universe and role of humanity within it. The philosophers Fichte, Schelling, Hegel and Schopenhauer amended and developed the Kantian system, thus bringing about various forms of German idealism. Examples of such contradictions include those between nature and freedom, and between immanence and transcendence. Never held a formal academic post. Those who identify with Luther's teachings are called Lutherans. The impossibility of knowledge, even in regard to our own ignorance or doubt, should induce the wise person to withdraw into themselves, avoiding the stress and emotion which belong to the contest of vain imaginings. Timeline About Links. Descartes' influence in mathematics is equally apparent; the Cartesian coordinate system - allowing reference to a point in space as a set of numbers, and allowing algebraic equations to be expressed as geometric shapes in a two-dimensional coordinate system (and conversely, shapes to be described as equations) - was named after him. He is considered to be one of the major figures of medieval thought and was at the centre of the major intellectual and political controversies of the fourteenth century. Below is a timeline of art movements throughout history. He regarded material substance as an infinite multitude of imperishable primary elements, referring all generation and disappearance to mixture and separation respectively. Hume also examined the normative is-ought problem. Sextus Empiricus (c. 160 - 210 AD), was a physician and philosopher, and has been variously reported to have lived in Alexandria, Rome, or Athens. In 1898, he established the journal L'Annee Sociologique. He is considered among the most influential theorists and organizers of anarchism. He published numerous books during his lifetime, the most notable being The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Capital (1867 -1894). Marcus Aurelius' Stoic tome Meditations, written in Greek while on campaign between 170 and 180, is still revered as a literary monument to a philosophy of service and duty, describing how to find and preserve equanimity in the midst of conflict by following nature as a source of guidance and inspiration. He may be regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. His followers pursued the religious rites and practices developed by Pythagoras, and studied his philosophical theories. Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius, commonly called Boethius (ca. Charles Robert Darwin (12 February 1809 - 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist. Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (10 November 1759 - 9 May 1805) was a German poet, philosopher, historian, and playwright. From the lonely life he led, and still more from the riddling nature of his philosophy and his contempt for humankind in general, he was called "The Obscure" and the "Weeping Philosopher". Influences: Berkeley and Locke. Epicurus (341 BCE - 270 BCE) was an ancient Greek philosopher as well as the founder of the school of philosophy called Epicureanism. Whether or not his disciples believed that everything was related to mathematics and that numbers were the ultimate reality is unknown. Scotus has had considerable influence on both Catholic and secular thought. On July 16, 1228, he was pronounced a saint by Pope Gregory IX. He was one of the founding figures of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant. Pascal was an important mathematician, helping create two major new areas of research: he wrote a significant treatise on the subject of projective geometry at the age of sixteen, and later corresponded with Pierre de Fermat on probability theory, strongly influencing the development of modern economics and social science. Little of his life and work is known today. Malebranche is best known for his doctrines of Vision in God and Occasionalism. Born in Poitiers, France, in 1926, Foucault was educated at the Lycee Henri-IV and then the Ecole Normale Superieure, where he developed an interest in philosophy and came under the influence of his tutors-philosophers Jean Hyppolite and Louis Althusser. Francis was the son of a wealthy cloth merchant in Assisi, and he lived the high-spirited life typical of a wealthy young man, even fighting as a soldier for Assisi. His writings influenced Voltaire and Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries. Popper is known for his attempt to repudiate the classical observationalist/inductivist form of scientific method in favour of empirical falsification. Jean Buridan (in Latin, Johannes Buridanus) (ca. The Renaissance (1500-1750). Epictetus (AD 55 - AD 135) was a Greek sage and Stoic philosopher. Proudhon favored workers' associations or co-operatives, as well as individual worker/peasant possession, over private ownership or the nationalization of land and workplaces. Only a few fragments and letters of Epicurus's 300 written works remain. It is probable that he personally translated the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John; and it is possible he translated the entire New Testament, while his associates translated the Old Testament. A visual communication designer has created an interactive timeline of philosophical ideas that is impressive, useful, and beautiful. Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 - 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, and political economist who profoundly influenced social theory, social research, and the discipline of sociology itself. His influence on the Latin language was so immense that the subsequent history of prose in not only Latin but European languages up to the 19th century was said to be either a reaction against or a return to his style.According to Michael Grant, "the influence of Cicero upon the history of European literature and ideas greatly exceeds that of any other prose writer in any language." Nicolaus Copernicus (19 February 1473 - 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance astronomer and the first person to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe. He is often revered as a great mathematician, mystic and scientist, but he is best known for the Pythagorean theorem which bears his name. He held the James Bryant Conant University Professorship at Harvard University. This site offers an easy to navigate timeline of major philosophers and information about the time they lived in. Little is known about his early life and education, but he regarded himself as self-taught and a pioneer of wisdom. He was awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature and refused it, saying that he always declined official honors and that "a writer should not allow himself to be turned into an institution. Principal figure in liberal political philosophy. Summa theologiae and the first philosopher! 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