the 4th century BC).The Avestan language is often classified as early Eastern Iranian, but this is uncertain. According to recent US government estimates, approximately 35 … Pashto also converged with the northwestern Indian languages, especially the Prakrits, Balochi, and Sindhi. The earliest literary form is poetry; Mohammad Hotak’s Pata Khazana (1728–29; “The Hidden Treasure”) is a collection of Pashto poetry from the 8th century onward. Nonetheless, it is clear that the speech community’s location in a contested part of the ancient world instigated extensive contact with, and borrowing from, other languages, including varieties of ancient Greek, Saka, Parthian, and Persian. , Strabo, who lived between 64 BC and 24 CE, explains that the tribes inhabiting the lands west of the Indus River were part of Ariana.  In India most ethnic Pashtun (Pathan) peoples speak the geographically native Hindi-Urdu language instead of Pashto. Pashto is an SOV (subject–object–verb) language with split ergativity. However, the first recorded period begins with Bayazid Ansari (1526-74), who founded his own Sufi school of thoughts and began to preach his beliefs. It is spoken by more than 35 million people, most of whom reside in Afghanistan or Pakistan. and Pashto on Pashto language, literature, history, art, Folk and culture. Since the 3rd century CE and onward, they are mostly referred to by the name “Afghan” (“Abgan”) and their language as “Afghani”. Therefore the language … The largest living Eastern Iranian language is Pashto with some 40 million speakers, a major language of Afghanistan and western Pakistan. Pashto belongs to the Indo-European languages family. Pashto borrows words more from Urdu, whereas Dari has more borrowings from Turkmen and Uzbek. Pashto language, Pashto also spelled Pashtu, also called Pakhtu, member of the Iranian division of the Indo-Iranian group of Indo-European languages. Pashto language has a very rich, traditional culture dating back almost 7000 years. Pashto also has a rich heritage of proverbs (Pashto matalúna, sg. The constitutional assembly reaffirmed the status of Pashto as an official language in 1964 when Afghan Persian was officially renamed to Dari. The major dialect divisions themselves have numerous variants. Today, Dari Persian and Pashto both are official national languages. Paṣto Quarterly 1.4 (1978): 43-55. The possessor precedes the possessed in the genitive construction. The variation in spelling of the language's name (Pashto, Pukhto, etc.) The total number of Pashto-speakers is at least 40 million, although some estimates place it as high as 60 million.. It is the provincial language in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.  Pashto and Dari (Persian) are the two official languages of Afghanistan. The sentence construction of Pashto is akin to that of Hindi. Pashto Language History book download and read online free. The Pashtun diaspora speaks Pashto in countries like the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Qatar, Australia, Japan, Russia, New Zealand, etc. Da Ẓhabo Aw Adabiyāto Pohanżī. The exact number of speakers is unavailable, but different estimates show that Pashto is the mother tongue of 45–60% of the total population of Afghanistan.  An example of a proverb: Translation: "One cannot divide water by [hitting it with] a pole.". Pashto employs the Pashto alphabet, a modified form of the Perso-Arabic alphabet or Arabic script. , Speakers of the language are called Pashtuns or Pukhtuns/Pakhtuns (historically known as ethnic Afghans). In the Indo-Aryan...…. In terms of number of speakers, Chinese has the most native speakers (about 1 billion), while English (about 350 million) is more widely used in different parts of the world. Pashto is the primary language of Afghanistan and a secondary language in Pakistan with about 40-60 million speakers worldwide, although we do not have an exact number. Some of those who wrote in Pashto are Bayazid Pir Roshan (a major inventor of the Pashto alphabet), Khushal Khan Khattak, Rahman Baba, Nazo Tokhi, and Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the modern state of Afghanistan or the Durrani Empire. Pashto-speakers have long had a tradition of oral literature, including proverbs, stories, and poems. This Pashto to English Translate Dictionary is a high quality irreplaceable application which will help you gain an unbelievable opportunity to explore Foreign Languages in a thorough way. The History of Pashto language Pashto is one of the national languages of Afghanistan (Dari Persian is the other). Pashto...…, From the borderlands of the Persian-speaking zone, culturally under Mughal rule, one poet deserves special...…, …Indo-Iranian languages of Baluchi and Pashto are exclusively creations of Muslim writers. Home Pashto Language (پښتو) Your Lang: None English Español हिन्दी Italiano Русский العربية 日本語 Français Tagalog Português Afrikaans Norsk Svenska Kiswahili Hrvatski Kreyòl ayisyen עברית Türkçe 한국어 中文 Deutsch From the time of Ahmad Shah Durrani (1722–1772), Pashto has been the language of the court. Pashto has three separate verbs types and more complicated word formation. This section appears to contradict the article Dari language. Many of these languages are in danger of extinction while a few are expanding. Nonetheless, the Pashtuns are sometimes compared with the Pakhta tribes mentioned in the Rigveda (1700–1100 BC), apparently the same as a people called Pactyans, … (May 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) A number of linguists have argued that Pashto is descended from Avestan or a variety very similar to it. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica.  The lyrics of the national anthem of Afghanistan are in Pashto. In 1936, Pashto was made the national language of Afghanistan by royal decree. It has multiple dialects, the main being the Western dialect, also … Likewise, the term for ‘male buffalo’ is rendered sand in Hindi and sanr in Pashto. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The following table gives the letters' isolated forms, along with the Latin equivalents [not officially recognised] and typical IPA values: Pashto dialects are divided into two varieties, the "soft" southern variety Paṣ̌tō, and the "hard" northern variety Pax̌tō (Pakhtu). Common Core State Standard and/or Academic Content Standard: Afghanistan Language History … In fact, the “Pashtoons” are considered to have branched off from In: Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world. It is also known as Afghani. The origin of Pashto language and the Pashtun tribes is unknown. "Die Herausbildung moderner iranischer Literatursprachen." In the 1930s a movement began to take hold to promote Pashto as a language of government, administration, and art with the establishment of a Pashto Society Pashto Anjuman in 1931 and the inauguration of the Kabul University in 1932 as well as the formation of the Pashto Academy Pashto Tolana in 1937.. Pashto Academy (Pakistan) Language codes; ISO 639-1: ISO 639-2: ISO 639-3 : pus – inclusive code Individual codes: pst – Central Pashto pbu – Northern Pashto pbt – Southern Pashto wne – Waneci: Linguasphere: 58-ABD-a: This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. What scholars agree on is the fact that Pashto is an Eastern Iranian language sharing characteristics with Eastern Middle Iranian languages such as Bactrian, Khwarezmian and Sogdian. Although officially supporting the use of Pashto, the Afghan elite regarded Persian as a "sophisticated language and a symbol of cultured upbringing". 1966. The sound /n/ of Persian is replaced by /l/ in Pashto. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. ...د فلک چارو څه وکړم کوکا This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Pashto-language, Pashto Web - A Brief Introduction to Pashto Language. The History of Pashto Language/Background Pashto language is as old as the “Pashtoon” because Pashto is not only the name of a language that has a very rich history, but a language with deeply rooted norms, values, and traditions. It has two main dialects, western dialect and eastern dialect. Modern Pashto-speaking communities are found in the cities of Karachi and Hyderabad in Sindh. Pashto... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. ), and four cases (direct, oblique, ablative and vocative). So for instance, the Arabic word فرق would be pronounced as /par(ə)k/.  Persian, the literary language of the royal court, was more widely used in government institutions while the Pashtun tribes spoke Pashto as their native tongue. The verb system is very intricate with the following tenses: present, simple past, past progressive, present perfect and past perfect. What scholars agree on is the fact that Pashto is an Eastern Iranian language sharing characteristics with Eastern Middle Iranian languages such as Bactrian, Khwarezmian and Sogdian. List of colors borrowed from neighbouring languages: Areas in Afghanistan and Pakistan where Pashto is: The only American pronunciation listed by. Language history and … Pashto Language Dialects Subject matter: Spoken Dialects Grade Level: Second Language Acquisition (5-9) Lesson Objective: Learner will be able to exhibit the knowledge of Pashto language and multiple local dialects commonly spoken in various regions of Afghanistan. John R. Perry, "Lexical Areas and Semantic Fields of Arabic" in Éva Ágnes Csató, Eva Agnes Csato, Bo Isaksson, Carina Jahani. Hindi and gadai in Pashto it is mainly spoken by more than 35 million people most. ] with تخت [ from Farsi ] Britannica newsletter to Get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox,!, but this is exactly what you are agreeing to news, offers and... 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